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State of World Population 2005

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Notes

CHAPTER 1


1. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals: Overview. Report to the Secretary-General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

2. The World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice, pp. 33, 35, 74, and 99. New York and Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press and the World Bank.

3. Malhotra, A., and R. Mehra. 1999. Fulfilling the Cairo Commitment: Enhancing Women's Economic and Social Options for Better Reproductive Health. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women..

4. Based on calculations of disabilityadjusted life years (DALYs). See: WHO. 2002. "Estimates of DALYs by Sex, Cause and WHO Mortality Sub-region: Estimates for 2001." Geneva: WHO. Web site: www3.who.int/whosis/menu.cfm?path=evidence,burden,burden_estimates, burden_estimates_2001,burden_estimates_2001_subregion&language=english, accessed 9 July 2003. Cited in: Singh, S., et al. 2004. Adding It Up: The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health Care. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute and UNFPA.

5. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 2004. "The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health." Issues in Brief. 2004 Series. No. 4. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.

6. The World Bank 2001.

7. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, p. 77. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

8. The World Bank. 2003a. Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; The World Bank 2001, p. 11; and The World Bank. 2003b. "Poverty Reduction through Gender-disaggregated Analysis of Public Expenditures: The Case of Cambodia." Promising Approaches to Engendering Development. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

9. UN Millennium Project. 2005b. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, p. 120. Report to the UN Secretary-General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

10. Ibid., p. 120; and Shenker, S., and E. Shields. 22 December 2004. "Mixed Views on UN Indigenous Decade." BBC News Online, accessed 18 April 2005.

11. United Nations. 2005a. 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294). New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

12. UN Millennium Project 2005b.

13. UN Millennium Project. 2005c. Who's Got the Power: Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

14. Starrs, A., and P. Ten Hoope-Bender. 2004. "Dying for Life." Pp. 78-81 in: Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All: Special Report: ICPD at Ten: Where are We Now, by Countdown 2015. 2004. New York, London, and Washington, D.C.: Family Care International, International Planned Parenthood Federation, and Population Action International; and Sein, T., and U. M. Rafei. 2002. "No More Cradles in the Graveyards." Regional Health Forum 6(2). New Delhi: WHO South-East Asia Region.

15. UN Millennium Project 2005c.

16. United Nations. 2004. World Youth Report 2005: Report of the Secretary- General (A/60/61 - E/2005/7), p. 1. New York: United Nations.

17. ILO. 2004. Global Employment Trends for Youth. Geneva: ILO.

18. The Population Council. n.d. "Transitions to Adulthood: Married Adolescents/First-Time Parents: Child Marriage." New York: The Population Council. Web site: www.popcouncil.org/ta/childmar.html#2, accessed 1 July 2005.

19. UNFPA. 2004. The State of World Population 2004: The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty, p. 76. New York: UNFPA.

20. United Nations. 2001. We the Children: End-decade Review of the Follow-up to the World Summit for Children: Report of the Secretary-General (A/S-27/3). New York: United Nations.

21. UNICEF. 2004. The State of the World's Children 2005: Childhood under Threat. New York: UNICEF.

22. UNFPA. 2005. The Case for Investing in Young People as Part of a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. New York: UNFPA.

23. "A Role for Men in Gender Equality Fight." 13 September 2004. IPS UN Journal 11(165): 6.

24. Heise, L., M. Ellsberg, and M.Gottemoeller. 1999. "Ending Violence against Women." Population Reports. Series L. No. 11. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.

25. UN Millennium Project 2005a, pp. 15 and 110.

26. The figure represents the estimated costs of intimate partner violence. See: Waters, H., et al. 2004. The Economic Dimensions of Interpersonal Violence. Geneva: Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention, WHO.

27. UNFPA. n.d. "Population Issues: Culture: India: Restoring the Sex Ratio Balance." New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/culture/case_studies/india_study.htm, accessed 18 June 2005.

28. United States Department of State. 2005. Trafficking in Persons Report: June 2005. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of State.

29. United Nations 2005b

30. United Nations. 2005c. Summary of the Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific: 2005 (E/2005/18). New York: United Nations

31. UN Millennium Project 2005b.

32. United Nations 2005b, para 8.

33. UN Millennium Project. n.d. "Fast Facts. Faces of Poverty." Web site: www.unmillenniumproject.org/facts/index.htm, accessed 3 June 2005.

34. UN Millennium Project. 2005b.

35. While nearly one trillion dollars are spent on military expenditures every year, total development assistance for 2003 was $69 billion. See: Skoens, E., C. Perdomo, and P. Stalenheim. 2004. "Military Expenditure." Ch. 10 in: SIPRI Yearbook 2004: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2004. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Also see: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 11 April 2005. "Official Development Assistance Increases Further: But 2006 Targets Still a Challenge." Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Web site: www.oecd.org/document/3/0,2340,en_2649_201185_34700611_1_1_1_1,00.html, last accessed 5 July 2005.

36. Maathai, W. 10 December 2004. Nobel Lecture, Nobel Foundation, Oslo, Norway.

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