1. Koblinsky, M. A. (ed.). 2003. Reducing Maternal Mortality: Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. Human Development Network Health, Nutrition, and Population Series. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; and UNFPA. 2004a. Saving Mothers' Lives: The Challenge Continues. New York: UNFPA. In the 1990s, Zimbabwe also made progress in reducing maternal mortality.
2. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Combating AIDS in the Developing World, pp. 22 and 32. Working Group on HIV/AIDS, Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.
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5. UNFPA and University of Aberdeen. 2005. Maternal Mortality Update 2004: Delivering into Good Hands. New York: UNFPA; and UN Millennium Project. 2005c. Who's Got the Power: Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.
6. The exact relation of levels of maternal morbidity in relation to mortality varies in different settings and data are limited, including according to age group. Estimates of annual global maternal morbidity range from a conservative 8 million to over 20 million. See, for example: UN Millennium Project 2005c; and for a reference on 15 million: UNFPA and University of Aberdeen 2005, p. 26.
8. WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA. 2004. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA. Geneva: Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO; and WHO. 2005. World Health Report 2005: Make Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: WHO.
10. WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA 2004. Based on 2000 estimates of maternal deaths. See: Caro, D. A., S. F. Murray, and P. Putney. 2004. "Evaluation of the Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program." A Grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation To the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Silver Spring, Maryland: Cultural Practice.
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19. See: United Nations 1995, para. 8.25: "In no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning. All Governments and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are urged to strengthen their commitment to women's health, to deal with the health impact of unsafe abortion as a major public health concern and to reduce the recourse to abortion through expanded and improved family-planning services. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must always be given the highest priority and every attempt should be made to eliminate the need for abortion. Women who have unwanted pregnancies should have ready access to reliable information and compassionate counselling. Any measures or changes related to abortion within the health system can only be determined at the national or local level according to the national legislative process. In circumstances where abortion is not against the law, such abortion should be safe. In all cases, women should have access to quality services for the management of complications arising from abortion. Post-abortion counselling, education and family-planning services should be offered promptly, which will also help to avoid repeat abortions."
21. Popov, A. 1999. "Family Planning and Induced Abortion in Post-Soviet Russia of the Early 1990s: Unmet Needs in Information Supply." In: Russia's Demographic "Crisis," edited by J. Da Vanzo. 1999. Santa Monica, California: RAND. Cited in: United Nations. 2004a. World Population Monitoring 2002: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health (ST/ESA/SER), by the UN Population Division. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
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28. It is estimated that the maternal mortality ratio has increased in some countries where HIV/AIDS and malaria are rising. See: UN Millennium Project 2005c; and The World Bank. 2003. Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
33. UNFPA. 2004c. "The New Route to Safer Childbirth in Rural Senegal." News Feature. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news/news.cfm?ID=389&Language=1, accessed 17 January 2005; and UNFPA 2004b, p. 6.
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47. International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS. 2004. Visibility, Voices and Visions: A Call for Action from HIV Positive Women to Policy Makers. London: International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS; and Ogden, J., and L. Nyblade. 2005. Common at Its Core: HIV-Related Stigma Across Contexts. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.
49. Bianco, M. 2003. "The Balance of 20 Years Fight against HIV/AIDS in Argentina." Sexual Health Exchange 2003/1. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute. Web site: www.kit.nl/ils/exchange_content/assets/images/Exchange_2003-1_eng.pdf, last accessed 12 May 2005; and Ipas. 2003. "Bill of Rights Launched to Commemorate International Women's Day." Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Ipas. Web site: www.ipas.org/ english/press_room/2003/releases/03072003.asp, accessed 12 May 2005.
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51. USAID, UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF, and the POLICY Project. 2004. Coverage of Selected Services for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care, and Support in Low and Middle Income Countries in 2003. Washington, D.C.: POLICY Project, the Futures Group.
53. Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health's MTCT-Plus Initiative supports the provision of specialized care to HIV-infected women, their partners and their children identified in PMTCT programmes. It announced grants of more than $9 million to twelve hospitals, health centres and clinics in eight African countries and Thailand for treatment and support services such as counselling, education and community outreach, ARVs and drugs for AIDS complications, training, and other technical assistance.
55. WHO and UNAIDS. 2004. "Ensuring Equitable Access to Antiretroviral Treatment for Women: WHO/UNAIDS Policy Statement," p. 6. Geneva: WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/ gender/violence/en/equitableaccess.pdf, accessed 1 January 2005.
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74. A worldwide analysis using data from 2000 found that an estimated 105 million married women and 8 million unmarried women in developing countries expressed an unmet need for family planning, that is, they wanted to delay or avoid another birth. When women using traditional family planning methods- such as periodic abstinence or withdrawal-are added, this figure reaches 201 million. These women run risks of unwanted pregnancies because traditional family planning methods are far less effective than modern methods such as sterilization, condoms, intrauterine devices, hormonal pills and injectibles. See: Singh, et al. 2004. See also: Westoff, C. F. 2001. Unmet Need at the End of the Century. DHS Comparative Reports. No. 1. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro.
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